Functionalism can be defined as the aStructural-consensus theorya. Functionalism is the belief that every aspect of society is essential for the stability of the whole society. Emilie Durkheim saw society as an organism. Each part of society plays a vital role, but cannot function on its own. This is how living organisms work. Functionalism describes the different parts of society as a collection of social institutions that are designed to fulfill various needs of the society. Understanding functionalism theory and the institutions that make up sociology is difficult without understanding the economy, religion, government, education, media, family, and other important factors. A functioning society can only exist if an institution serves a vital role. If the institution ceases to serve a purpose, it will die and become ineffective. The current institution will be redesigned to meet new requirements as they arise. Value consensus is the collection of values, roles, norms, and principles that are shared through socialization. This includes beliefs that are correct or wrong. Socialization is the source of pattern behavior. Social order is maintained by a general value consensus. Meritocracy states that everyone has equal opportunity to succeed and you will be rewarded according to your efforts and abilities. This means that the individuals who receive the greatest rewards are those who have the most skill and diligence.
Socialization and the way it creates social order are two of the strengths of functionalism theory. Social order can be achieved by a system of roles and norms that is supported by a shared culture, which is formed through the participation of members of the society. This allows people to achieve their goals by adhering to the rules and acting in a desired way. This is known as the value consensus. Social order can be achieved through value consensus. It allows individuals to become part of the social system, and manage them to meet its needs. When it comes to socialization in education, children learn value consensus along with shared values and roles. Socialization would not be present in the education system. This is because society has mixed opinions about what is important. It is clear that the importance of different institutions in society, such as education, family, and religion, is evident. and their clear structure.
Meritocracy is a weakness in the functionalist theory. Meritocracy, which is based on rewarding individual efforts, completely ignores the fact some people are in disadvantage because of circumstances beyond their control. Because everyone comes from different backgrounds, a person from a working class background may have different experiences. Higher education is not always available to someone who comes from a working class background. This is because opportunities aren’t available to all members of society, which makes them biased and unfair.